The sixth in a series of conversations with Ellsworth Bunker, businessman and U.S. ambassador to Argentina (1951-1952), Italy (1952-1953), India and Nepal (1956-1961), the Organization of American States (1964-1966), and South Vietnam (1967-1973). This segment is a conversation with Professor of History Charles Maier, focusing on Europe.
Reverend Mac Legerton is the executive director of the Center for Community Action (CCA) in Robeson County, North Carolina, a multicultural, community-based, nonprofit organization that specializes in grassroots empowerment and multi-sector collaboration as the foundations of social change.
A conversation with Angier Biddle Duke, former U.S. ambassador to Spain, El Salvador, Denmark, and Morocco, and chief of protocol to the State Department, as well as benefactor of the Rutherfurd Living History Program. Also interviewed is Robin Chandler Duke, former U.S. ambassador to Norway.
A conversation with W. Averell Harriman, former governor of New York (1955-1958), U.S. secretary of commerce (1946-1948), aide to Franklin Roosevelt, and U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946) and the United Kingdom (1946).
An interview with Robert Jordan, U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2001-2003). Interviewed by Richard Stubbing, professor of the practice of public policy, and Bob Bliwise, editor of Duke Magazine, February 18, 2002, in Durham.
Rebecca Flores Harrington served as the Texas State Field Director of the AFL-CIO. Before that she was director of United Farm Workers’ Texas Project. Born in south Texas to a migrant family, she was the first Mexican-American woman to earn a degree from the University of Michigan Graduate School of Social Work.
Thomas C. Barnwell, Jr., a native of Hilton Head, SC, began his work in community service at Penn Community Service, Inc. While at the Penn Center, he worked in community organization, program planning, federal program orientation and implementation.
Wilma Warren is the former president of Virginia Water Project of Roanoke, Virginia. Under Warren’s leadership, the Water Project has generated $224 million in public and private money for drinking water and wastewater systems across the state — bringing safe water for the first time to about 180,000 people.
Robert Lampman (D. 1997) served on the staff of President John F. Kennedy’s Council of Economic Advisers. While on the staff of the council, Mr. Lampman warned the White House that rapid economic growth alone would not eliminate poverty.
Mike Clark of Washington Grove, Maryland, is director of the Whetstone Project, which provides technical assistance to grassroots environmental groups around the country and raises questions about corporate accountability.
Thelma Waters is the unofficial mayor of Booker Park. She obtained grant money to build the town’s first group of block houses and is honored in the naming of the Thelma Waters Infant Child Care Center for her work in getting such a center established in the county.
F. Ray Marshall is the former secretary of Department of Labor under President Jimmy Carter. Under Marshall, DOL played a major role in Carter’s economic stimulus program, instituting major expansions in public service and job training programs. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) programs were strengthened and “common sense priorities” led to focus on major health problems. Mine Safety and Health Administration was created to protect nation’s miners. Many federal equal employment opportunity programs were consolidated under Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, and women’s programs were strengthened.
Timothy Bazemore, Sr. is a native of Bertie County, NC. Bazemore was inducted into the army in 1945 and was scheduled for assignment in Japan the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. After returning to the United States in 1947, he became an entrepreneur in the logging and farming industries until 1967.
Bazemore was involved in many community activities during that time, one of which was the organization of a tutorial program in the 1960s that was instrumental in getting aides for teachers into the classrooms of the Bertie County School system. He then went on to found the Good Neighbor Council, a biracial group designated to combat race relation issues. While studying brick masonry under the GI Bill, he was offered a position through Choanoke Area Development Association (CADA) and the North Carolina Fund to work with the Relocation Program moving families from rural eastern North Carolina to the Piedmont Area. He initiated the Woodard Home Grown Food Project – “Growing Food for All Families” and became active on the CADA Board of Directors while he worked to save the Bertie County sewing industry. In order to rebuild it, he started an employee-owned operation in the manufacture of children’s clothing called “Workers Owned.” It grew from 5 employees to 70 people and developed contracts as large as a half a million dollars with companies such as Kmart. Finally, Bazemore was inducted into the North Carolina Community Action Association Hall of Fame in 2009.
Leslie Dunbar has been active in civil rights and antipoverty struggles in the South for more than three decades. He served as executive director of the Southern Regional Council in Atlanta from 1961 to 1965 before joining the Field Foundation of New York as executive director, a post he held until 1980. A political scientist, he has written several books, including Reclaiming Liberalism and The Common Interest, and currently is book editor for Southern Changes, the Southern Regional Council’s publication.
A conversation with Tamera Luzzatto, senior vice-president at Pew Charitable Trusts. Luzzatto was Chief of Staff to then Senators Hillary Clinton and Jay Rockefeller.
A conversation with Anthony Zinni, retired Marine general and commander in chief of United States Central Command (1997-2000).
Emma R. Gresham is a retired schoolteacher and former mayor of Keysville, Georgia. Gresham helped restore the government of Keysville in 1985, fifty years after it had been dismantled, disenfranchising a largely black community of their voting rights. Gresham became mayor in 1988, as the result of the first Municipal Election to be held in fifty-five years. As mayor, she achieved basic services for her community including indoor plumbing, which most of the residents did not have, sanitation pick-up, a library, fire protection, a health clinic, playground, streets named, city lights, the participating Certified Literacy Program, and a sewage grant. Gresham was an Essence Awards Honoree and was named one of the One Hundred Eckerd Women, which recognizes women with above excellent volunteer records in the United States.
John W. Hatch is a professor in the department of health behavior and health education in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As an assistant professor at Tufts University School of Medicine in the 1960s, Hatch helped organize the Delta Health Center, Inc. of Mound Bayou, Mississippi. In response to widespread malnutrition in the region, Hatch initiated and directed an adjunct of the center, the North Bolivar County Farm Cooperative.
John Brown, Jr. was a founder and director of the South East Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA) since its inception in 1967. Before joining SEASHA, Brown had been a teacher in the Phenix City, Alabama, school system. Over the years, SEASHA has served as an advocate for the rural poor in twelve counties, promoting grassroots activity in farming, housing, and loans to minority businesses.
Sophia Bracy-Harris has been executive director of the Federation of Child Care Centers of Alabama (FOCAL) since it was founded in 1971. She was baptized into social action by the firebombing of her home in early 1966 after she and her sister integrated the white high school in Wetumpka, Alabama. At FOCAL, Harris directs provision of technical assistance, training, and advocacy for a network of child-care centers and leads a program encouraging low-income black women to take leadership roles in their communities. She is the recipient of a 1991 MacArthur Fellowship.
George Autry (1937-1999) was the founder and president of MDC, Inc., a nonprofit research corporation in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, concerned with employment policies and programs in North Carolina. Autry became founding executive director of MDC in 1967 and served as president of the organization until his death in 1999. Prior to his work at MDC, Autry served as chief counsel to Senator Sam Ervin’s subcommittee on constitutional rights. Recent MDC projects include Latino Student Success, Partners for Postsecondary Success, and Career Pathways for a Greener South.
Herman Lodge (d. 2005) was president of the Burke County Improvement Association in Waynesboro, Georgia, and a county commissioner. Lodge filed several landmark voting rights cases during the 1970′s and 1980′s, including Lodge v. Buxton and Lodge v. Rogers. In 1982 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in his favor, expanding the Justice Department’s authority in redistricting cases. That year, Lodge and another black candidate were elected to the county board of commissioners.
Father Frank O’Loughlin heads the Migration and Refugee Service of the Archdiocese of Palm Beach. He assisted in developing the CORN-Maya project which based its philosophy on the indigenous culture, identity, and values of the Maya. Its goals are to promote legal defense, economic and social development, and the adaption of the Maya in the US with dignity. The Irish-born Roman Catholic priest founded the Mayan Guatemalan Center in Lake Worth 20 years ago. The center, FEMA and other charities are partners trying to get food, housing and supplies to some of Palm Beach County’s poorest residents. Many migrant and day laborers have moved to shelters because their homes have no electricity.
Emory Campbell is executive director emeritus of the Penn Center on St Helena Island, S.C. The Penn Center, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest and most historically significant African American cultural and educational institutions in the United States. He continues to do African American heritage tours of the Sea Islands, to work with other communities to preserve the property rights of African Americans on the Sea Islands (in the face of creeping development), and to write and publish about Gullah-Geechee history and culture.
Charles Prejean is assistant professor of political science and director of the Institute for Social, Economic, and Political Studies at Xavier University in New Orleans. A veteran of the civil rights movement, he was executive director of the Federation of Southern Cooperatives from 1967 to 1984. As federation director, Prejean led a farm cooperative movement that supported and coordinated bootstrap economic development efforts of about 30,000 mostly black, low-income rural families organized into 130 cooperatives across the South.
Richard W. Boone directs the Project for Participatory Democracy of the Tides Foundation of San Francisco, California. In 1962, Boone joined President Kennedy’s Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. Under the Johnson Administration, Boone served as director of the program policy and development division of the Office of Economic Opportunity. He left the OEO in 1965 to become executive director of the Citizens’ Crusade Against Poverty, and helped create and direct its successor, the Center for Community Change. From 1981 to 1988, he served as director of the Field Foundation.
Sister Anne Catherine Bizalion (1925-1997) was the executive director and co-founder of the Southern Mutual Help Association (SMHA) of New Iberia, Louisiana.
Lorna Bourg was President, Executive Director and co-founder of SMHA, New Iberia, Louisiana.
S. Maxine Waller of Ivanhoe, Virginia, started the Ivanhoe Civic League in 1986 to organize community economic development, education, and housing in her mountain town of 1,500 in southwest Virginia. Through her efforts, the League has employed 47 people, raised more than $500,000 from foundations and other sources, successfully lobbied the governor and other state officials for housing money, and started education programs in what used to be the company store of the mining firm that left town in 1981.
Aaron Henry (d. 1997) of Clarksdale, Mississippi, was elected to the Mississippi House of Representatives in 1982, holding the seat until 1996. Owner of a drugstore in Clarksdale, Dr. Henry was a civil rights activist for more than three decades. He led the Mississippi state chapter of the NAACP and was a founding member of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
Unita Blackwell is a civil rights activist who was the first African American woman to be elected mayor in the state of Mississippi. Blackwell, who served as mayor of Mayersville, Mississippi from 1976 to 2001, was also the president of the National Conference of Black Mayors in 1990. Born to sharecropper parents in the Mississippi Delta, she was a founding member of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and a friend to the late Fannie Lou Hamer. Blackwell was later a project director for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee which helped organize voter drives to encourage African American voting across Mississippi. Blackwell’s activism in housing and other rural issues helped promote the idea of “maximum participation of the poor” in the federal War on Poverty.
Olly Neal, Jr., a former Court of Appeals Judge, was appointed as interim judge for the 1st Judicial District in eastern Arkansas in January, 2010. Judge Neal was a prosecuting attorney in Lee County, Arkansas, where he was born and reared. In 1970, when he was 28 years old, Neal returned to Lee County to become administrator of the Lee County Cooperative Clinic in Marianna. As administrator, he worked with VISTA volunteers, led an economic boycott of downtown businesses, and encouraged residents to take control of clinic services, which included efforts to improve access to food stamps, repair housing, and construct sanitary privies.
A conversation with L.C. Dorsey, Jack Geiger and John Hatch, public health experts who helped establish the nation’s first rural community health center at Mound Bayou, Mississippi.
L. C. Dorsey, a civil rights activist, worked with Fannie Lou Hamer in the development of Freedom Farm Cooperative and other projects. Dorsey, who spent her early childhood on a Delta plantation, earned a doctorate in social work from Howard University and has worked as director of programs of Delta Ministries and associate director of the Southern Coalition on Jails and Prisons. She joined the Delta Health Center in 1967 to direct its North Bolivar County Farm Cooperative. From 1988 to 1995, Dorsey served as the Executive Director for the Delta Health Center in Mound Bayou, Mississippi, providing complete family medical care and social services for widespread poor populations. She then worked as a clinical associate professor in the Family Medicine Department at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.
Calvin R. King Sr., is executive director of the Arkansas Land and Farm Development Corporation, a non-profit, community development organization, which he founded in 1980 in Arkansas. King, a 1975 graduate of Philander Smith College, returned to his home in Lee County, Arkansas, in the late 1970s to help minority and disadvantaged family farmers hold on to their land and convert to more profitable nontraditional crops. He has received a number of awards for his efforts, including a MacArthur Fellowship in 1990.
H. Jack Geiger is the Arthur C. Logan Professor Emeritus of Community Medicine at the City University of New York Medical School. From 1965 to 1967, Geiger directed the nation’s first rural community health center at Mound Bayou, Mississippi. He is a founding member and past president of Physicians for Social Responsibility.
Eula Hall is founder and supervisor of the Mud Creek Clinic in Grethel, Kentucky. A founding member of the Eastern Kentucky Welfare Rights Organization, Hall helped acquire hot lunches for children in Mud Creek schools and played a major role in getting federal and local grants for a water system in the area. Her efforts in health care led to a clinic opening in 1973 under direct community control.
A conversation with Jack Matlock, former U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1987-1991) and Czechoslovakia (1981-1983), and Duke class of 1950.
Richard Goldstone is an honorable judge from South Africa who has worked both in his own country and abroad to adjudicate political conflicts. In South Africa, he played a pivotal role in using the law to undermine apartheid-era laws like the Group Areas Act which mandated segregation. Goldstone was later tasked with leading a commission to investigate political violence in the country during the transition out of apartheid. Later, he worked with the United Nations to prosecute war crimes in Rwanda and Yugoslavia.
Senator J. William Fulbright was a US senator for Arkansas from 1945 to 1974. At the time, he was known for his opposition to the Vietnam War and House Un-American Activities Committee, as well as for being the longest serving chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Today, he is probably best remembered for the international exchange program that bears his name: the Fulbright Program.
Yvonne Mokgoro is a former justice of the South African Constitutional Court. She was appointed by Nelson Mandela in 1994, and served until she retired in 2009 at the end of her 15-year term. Along with Albie Sachs, she played a pivotal role not only in landmark judicial decisions, but also in shaping the iconography of the court, particularly its focus on ubuntu and community-based justice.
Albie Sachs was a justice of the South African Constitutional Court from 1994 to 2009. An outspoken opponent of the apartheid regime, Sachs was known for his activism since his involvement in the 1955 Defence Campaign which helped kickstart the African National Congress’ efforts to oppose apartheid.
Stanton Griffis served US ambassador to Poland, Egypt, Argentina, and Spain. Here he speaks about Generalissimo Franco’s reign in Spain, his friendship with Evita Perón, and how he fostered a unique relationship with Sweden during World War II in order to convince them to help hasten the war’s end.
J.B. Rhine is considered one of the founders of the field of parapsychology. He published multiple studies and books on extrasensory perception. In this interview, he discusses his research and shows how his experiments are performed.
Princeton Lyman was the US ambassador to South Africa from 1992 to 1995. In this interview, he discusses the contradictions of US foreign policy and his career in the foreign service, most memorably his time as an ambassador to South Africa during the transition out of apartheid.
Michael I was twice the king of Romania; first, as a young child after his father eloped and renounced the role, and second as a young adult as the country allied with Nazi Germany. Although deposed by the Soviets in 1947 in the place of the new Communist dictatorship, King Michael played an instrumental role in the convoluted politics of Eastern Europe during the Second World War. In particular, he helped to orchestrate a coup of the German-backed dictator of Romania, Ion Antonescu, in August of 1944, and sought to counter the increasing involvement of Moscow in post-war Romanian politics.
Jack Matlock was a member of the US Foreign Service from 1956 to 1991, during which he was appointed as Ambassador to Moscow. In this interview, he discusses U.S. and Soviet Union relations in the 1980s, President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev’s negotiation tactics, and his own role as a diplomat throughout the Cold War.
At the time of this interview, Steele was perhaps most famous for being the first black politician elected to an executive position in a statewide election in Maryland when he won the lieutenant governorship in 2002. In this interview, Professor Kerry Haynie centers his questions on Steele’s impressions of the upcoming presidential election and presidential candidate Obama, his experiences as a black Republican in a historically white party, and the future of the GOP post election.
Harold Ford Jr. was a member of the US House of Representatives for Tennessee from 1997 to 2007, occupying the seat his father Harold Ford Sr. once held. He became one of the youngest members of Congress at 26 years old. He was interviewed ahead of the 2008 election to discuss Barack Obama’s presidential campaign and the new generation of black politicians.
Philip Gourevitch is an American journalist, widely known for his coverage of the Rwandan genocide in The New Yorker from 1994 onward and for his tenure as the editor of The Paris Review from 2005-2010.
Seymour Hersh is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter and author who has reported extensively on the abuse of power in the name of national security. This interview covers Hersh’s prolific, ground-breaking reporting on national security subjects for The New Yorker after September 11, 2001. Seymour Hersh was interviewed on October 13, 2009.
Turgut Özal was the Prime Minister, from 1983 to 1989, and President of Turkey, from 1989 to 1993. He advocated for neoliberal policies, working to deregulate the Turkish economy. His tenure was marked also by his support for the coalition against Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War. Özal was interviewed on March 26, 1991.
Miguel de la Madrid was president of Mexico from 1982 to 1988. A member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), he was known for his privatization of state-run industries and promotion of austerity measures. He was interviewed in 1996.
Alfredo Cristiani was president of El Salvador from 1989 through 1994, from the conservative ARENA party. He participated in the Chapultepec Peace Accords that ended the 12 year-long Salvadoran Civil War. Cristiani, a businessman, was a champion of neoliberal economic policies.
Victor Urquidi was a Mexican economist and academic. He represented Mexico at the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, and worked to promote economic cooperation at the United Nations and the World Bank. He was the president of Colegio de Mexico from 1966 to 1985. He was interviewed at Duke in 1989.
Terry Sanford served as governor of North Carolina from 1961 to 1965, president of Duke University from 1969 to 1985, and was a U.S. senator from 1986 to 1993. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination in 1972 and 1976. He was a leader in education, civil rights advocacy, and progressive politics in the South. He was interviewed at Duke in 1995.
Oscar Arias twice was the President of Costa Rica, from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his role in negotiating an agreement among five Central American countries aimed at ending more than a decade of war in the region. He was interviewed at Duke in 1991.
Bill Bell is the longest-serving mayor in Durham history. First elected in 2001, he retired in 2017, presiding over a period of development, growth, and cultural renaissance. Prior to his mayorship, Bell served on the Durham County Board of Commissioners from 1972 to 1994 and 1996 to 2000, where he spearheaded a merger of the county and city school districts. Bell was interviewed at Duke in April, 2018.
Jesse Jackson is a civil rights activist and minister whose work has spanned decades, from the struggle for votings rights through the election of President Barack Obama. He founded Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity) and organized the Rainbow Coalition. He ran for president in 1984 and 1988.
Barney Frank was a Democratic member of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts between 1981 and 2013. He served on the House Financial Services Committee from 2003 to 2013, and co-authored the Dodd-Frank legislation regulating the financial industry after the 2007-08 meltdown. He is a gay rights advocate who made headlines when he came out as a gay member of Congress.
Cory Booker, the current Democratic junior senator of New Jersey — and its first Black senator — was the mayor of Newark from 2006 to 2013. He is known for his commitment to education reform.
Booker was interviewed at Duke in 2009.
Samuel DuBois Cook was the first African-American tenured faculty member at Duke University in 1966, teaching in the Political Science department. He later served as president of Dillard University from 1975 to 1997.
Imam W. Deen Mohammed was an American Muslim leader who became the national leader of the Nation of Islam after his father Elijah Muhammad died in 1975. He attempted to remake his father’s radical organization into a mainstream Islamic movement more in line with Sunni Islam.
Abdus Salam was a Pakistani physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics, along with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg, in 1979 for his contribution to the electroweak theory.
Pultizer Prize-winning journalist Dana Priest discusses the investigative reporting behind her reports on topics including the CIA secret detention centers or black site prisons, and conditions at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
In a 2007 interview, Zbigniew Brzezinski, national security adviser to President Jimmy Carter, discusses his time in the White House, the first and second gulf wars, and the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.
In a 1999 interview, journalist Judy Woodruff discusses her college experience at Duke, her start in television, the challenges of political reporting and memorable moments from her career as a pioneering news anchor at CNN and PBS.
Former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Nitze recounts his role in shaping Cold War policy from the end of World War II through the Reagan administration.
Former ambassador Ellsworth Bunker recounts his formative years in Yonkers, New York and at Yale University, how he came to be in the foreign service, and his impressions of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman.
Former ambassador Ellsworth Bunker talks about his time as ambassador to South Vietnam at the height of the Vietnam War.
Former U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk discusses the Vietnam War and his relationships with Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Former U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk recounts his early life, American recognition of Israel, the Korean War, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Robert McNamara, the former U.S. secretary of defense and president of the World Bank, speaks about the Cuban Missile Crisis, nuclear weapons, and how the nation’s top public servants are trained, or not, for their work.
Washington Post reporter David Fahrenthold discusses his reporting on Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential campaign.
Washington Post reporter Karen Tumulty discusses her reporting on Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential campaign.
Peter Hamby, head of news at Snapchat, discusses the changing media landscape during the 2016 presidential campaign.
Evan Osnos, staff writer at The New Yorker, discusses his reporting on Donald Trump and white nationalism during the 2016 presidential campaign.
Professor of law and public policy at Duke, former Duke senior vice president, founder of the Sanford School of Public Policy, aide to Governor Terry Sanford, expert on philanthropy and non-profit organizations
Voting-rights activist in North Carolina and head of the Voter Integrity Project, an anti-fraud organization in Raleigh
Executive director of the North Carolina State Board of Elections, 1993-2013
A 2016 conversation with the veteran civil-rights activist, member of the North Carolina General Assembly, and former U.S. Attorney, about voting rights and his political career.
Army general and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Former chief justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, member of the North Carolina State Senate and House of Representatives
A conversation with second-generation voting-rights activist Armenta Eaton. Eaton is a civil-rights activist and plaintiff in the case against North Carolina’s H.B. 589. Here she discusses what it was like growing up the daughter of voting rights activist Rosanell Eaton, her work organizing the Concerned Women for Justice, and her civil disobedience.
Charles “Buck” Maggard (d. 1999), of Vicco, Kentucky, was community liaison for Appalshop, Inc., and its Headwaters Television and WMMT-FM public affairs programming. Maggard, a seasoned political activist, served as Appalachian coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and field coordinator of Appalachian Volunteers in the late 1960s. He also served as a staff member at the Highlander Research and Education Center in the early 1970s and early 1980s. In addition, Maggard, a former coal miner, worked as a paralegal advocating for miners dealing with black lung, social security, and pension claims.
North Carolina State Senate minority leader and first African American speaker of the North Carolina House
James Schlesinger, former US Secretary of Defense and US Secretary of Energy, talks about the Cold War, battling for the defense budget in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, and the country’s changing energy priorities.